charisma n : a personal attractiveness that enables you to influence others [syn: personal appeal, personal magnetism]
EtymologyFrom (charisma) "grace, favour, gift" < (charizomai) "I show favor" from (charis) "grace" from (chairō) "I am happy"
personal charm or magnetism
- German: Charisma
extraordinary power granted by the Holy Spirit
ability to influence without the use of logic
- Spanish: pegue
The word charisma (from the Greek word χάρισμα (kharisma), "gift" or "divine favor," from kharizesthai, "to favor," from kharis, "favor": see also charism, Charis) refers to a rare trait found in certain human personalities usually including extreme charm and a 'magnetic' quality of personality and/or appearance along with innate and powerfully sophisticated personal communicability and persuasiveness.
Charismatic traitsAlthough difficult or even impossible to define accurately (due to a lack of widely accepted criteria in regard to the trait), charisma is often used to describe an elusive, even undefinable personality trait that often includes the seemingly 'supernatural' or uncanny ability to lead, charm, persuade, inspire, and/or influence people. It refers especially to a quality in certain people who easily draw the attention and admiration (or even hatred if the application of such charisma is perceived to be negative) of others due to a 'magnetic' quality of personality and/or appearance. Related terms and phrases include: grace, exuberance, equanimity, mystique, positive energy, joie de vivre, extreme charm, personal magnetism, personal appeal, "electricity," and allure, among many others. Usually many of these specific qualities must be present within a single individual for the person to be considered highly charismatic by the public and their peers.
Despite the strong emotions they so often induce in others, charismatic individuals generally project unusual calmness, confidence, assertiveness, dominance, authenticity, and focus, and almost always possess superb communication and/or oratorical skills. Although the etymology of the word ("divine gift") might suggest that charisma can't be acquired, and despite the persistent inability to accurately define or even fully understand the concept, it is believed that charisma can be taught and/or learned. Others disagree with this assertion and maintain that it is an inborn trait, or acquired through growing up, and that it cannot be learned, taught, or 'gained' at will. Charisma can also be used in a negative way.
The psychology of charismaThe term charisma, derived from Ancient Greek was introduced in scholarly usage by German sociologist Max Weber. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9022534/charisma He defined charismatic authority to be one of three forms of authority, the other two being traditional (feudal) authority and legal or rational authority. According to Weber, charisma is defined thus: ...a certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which s/he is "set apart" from ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These as such are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as divine in origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader.
The study, recognition, and development of charisma in individuals is of particular interest to sociologists/psychologists, popular (usually national) politicians, public speakers, actors, movie-stars/movie-producers, casting directors, pop-music stars, trainers/coaches targeting the upper-echelons of the business community (CEOs), and academics or others involved in leadership studies or leadership development, among others.
In some cases highly-extroverted and brutally controlling charismatic leaders have used their personal charisma in extremely destructive and damaging ways throughout human history, for example, Adolf Hitler and Jim Jones. Yugoslav communist dictator Josip Broz Tito was said to be a "charismarch" - - "ruler staying in power by charisma".
Pierre Bourdieu did not have a very different position from that of Weber's, but he stressed that a leader has charisma only if other people accept that s/he has it. Bourdieu argued that charisma usually depends on an "inaugural act" such as a decisive battle or moving speech after which the charismatic person will be regarded as such.
Theories of charismaCharisma has also been studied as a set of behaviors/traits; for example, a modern psychological approach posits that charisma is basically aggregative, a conglomeration of distinct personality traits that meld well in certain individuals to form the broad quality known as charisma or "personal magnetism."
Theatrically, charisma can sometimes be "performed" on-stage and in films, and is encapsulated in both verbal and non-verbal communication.
The following are Professor Wiseman's general tips on how to be more charismatic:
- General: Open body posture, hands away from face when talking, stand up straight, relax, hands apart with palms forwards or upwards
- To an individual: Let people know they matter and you enjoy being around them, develop a genuine smile, nod when they talk, briefly touch them on the upper arm, and maintain eye contact
- To a group: Be comfortable as leader, move around to appear enthusiastic, lean slightly forward and look at all parts of the group
- Message: Move beyond status quo and make a difference, be controversial, new, simple to understand, counter-intuitive
- Speech: Be clear, fluent, forceful and articulate, evoke imagery, use an upbeat tempo, occasionally slow for tension or emphasis.
As "divine favor"
- Aura (similar to "presence")
- Barakah (roughly approximate Arabic Islamic/Sufi term for charisma)
- Baruch (roughly approximate Hebrew/Jewish term for charisma; it means "blessed")
- Charismatic movement (Evangelical Christianity)
- Charites, Greek goddesses of "charis" (grace/charisma)
- Darshan (roughly approximate Hindu term for charisma)
- Divine grace
- Enlightenment (concept)
- High Priest
- Neo-charismatic churches
- Religious ecstasy
- Spiritual gift
As "personal appeal"
- Charismatic authority
- Charismatic oratory
- Cool (aesthetic)
- Crowd psychology
- Cult of personality
- Ecstasy (emotion)
- List of charismatic leaders (uses Max Weber's definition as a basis)
- Milgram experiment
- Power (sociology)
- Sex appeal
- Sex symbol
- The Three Types of Legitimate Rule
- The X-Factors of Success from Psychology Today
- Max Weber and Charisma
- Charismatic Authority from about.com
- Why Charisma Matters from Tony Alessandra Ph.D.
- Charisma from vocalist.org
- Charisma by Thomas Robbin in the Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, edited by William H. Swatos: ISBN 0-7619-8956-0
- Toward a Theory of the Routinization of Charisma — April 1972
- The science of savoir faire
- Charismatic Cults on BBC Four in Thinking Allowed 26 January 2005 Wednesday 16.00-16.30 presented Laurie Taylor, press on "Listen Again"
- Article: "Moses, Charisma, and Covenant"
- The Character of Charisma
- "The Charisma Mandate" from The New York Times (February 17, 2008)
charisma in Arabic: كاريزما
charisma in Bulgarian: Харизма (религия)
charisma in Czech: Charizma
charisma in Danish: Karisma
charisma in German: Charisma
charisma in Spanish: Carisma
charisma in Persian: فرهمندی
charisma in French: Charisme (psychologie)
charisma in Korean: 카리스마
charisma in Italian: Carisma (Bibbia)
charisma in Hebrew: כריזמה
charisma in Lithuanian: Charizma
charisma in Macedonian: Харизма
charisma in Dutch: Charisma (karakter)
charisma in Japanese: カリスマ
charisma in Norwegian: Karisma
charisma in Portuguese: Carisma
charisma in Romanian: Carismă
charisma in Russian: Харизма
charisma in Slovak: Charizma (sociológia)
charisma in Serbian: Харизма
charisma in Finnish: Karisma
charisma in Swedish: Karisma
charisma in Ukrainian: Харизма
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